Research Innovation's Legislative Legacy

The Bayh-Dole Act (1980) enabled the decentralization of patent management. Academic institutions, nonprofits, and businesses now had ownership of any intellectual property (IP) that arose in part from federal funding. These entities could then license that IP to industry, enabling commercial development. This new method of technology transfer incentivized researchers to pursue commercialization of their innovations

Download this infographic on technology transfer.







This graphic helps us answer the question "What is the objective?", when we hear about a certain treatment or vaccine candidate. Additionally, COVID-19 has catalyzed a re-structuring of the ways in which treatments and vaccines make it from the laboratory to the doctor's office. Here, modifications to the research and clinical development process are also shown. This graphic helps us answer the question "What is the process?", when we ask what new treatments and vaccines must undergo in order to be fast-tracked to the public. Together, these representations provide an overview of the many approaches being utilized by the research community to combat the current public health threat and deliver safe interventions to the public as quickly as possible. 

Download this infographic of the R&D process for COVID-19 vaccine development.

R&D Pipeline and Tech Transfer

There are five main phases in research and development (R&D): basic research, applied research, clinical trials, regulatory review, and production & distribution. Academic and independent research institutions, private companies, and the federal government play unique and complementary roles in the R&D ecosystem. Learn more drug development and how research takes treatments from bench to bedside.


Download this Biomedical Research and Development Pipeline infographic.

Congressional Appropriations Process

The appropriations process is an annual event. Congress is tasked with producing a budget resolution and 12 appropriations bills for each federal fiscal year, which begins on October 1. Other funding legislation, such as emergency funding in response to emergencies ;ike COVID-19 frequently occurs outside of the standard process.


Click here to learn more about the appropriations process.